In studies of social processes of complex human systems such as families, organizations, and communities, qualitative methodology may be the most appropriate research strategy. Scholars of the family now extol the benefits of qualitative methodologies in gaining, or understanding, the dynamic processes, meanings, communication patterns, experiences, and individual and family constructions of reality.
Field settings and social service agencies provide unique opportunities for the qualitative study of social processes McRoy, Qualitative approaches have the advantage of flexibility and, in-depth analysis, as well as the potential to observe a variety of features of a social situation. Nevertheless, qualitative methodology is not completely precise because human beings do not always act logically or predictably McCoy, These criticisms are considered subjectivity.
Therefore, qualitative research findings cannot be replicated in the same way as quantitative results. For example, two qualitative researchers, one with a more pessimistic viewpoint and one with a more optimistic viewpoint, both studying the same phenomenon and interviewing the same individuals, may attain different conclusions because the interpretive process would be impacted by their dissimilar world views.
However, it should be noted that a primary emphasis on designing rigorous qualitative studies helps to minimize researcher bias. Qualitative research findings do not generalize to populations beyond the sample. This is due to the subjectivity of the results and because they are so specific to the sample.
Generalizability is not the aim of qualitative research because the goal of qualitative research is to develop a rich understanding of an aspect of human experience. As the aim of qualitative research is understanding rather than generalization, data collection continues as saturation occurs. A risk of betrayal can result from the greater closeness, and consequent trust may develop between the researcher and participant in qualitative research.
The risk of betrayal increases because of the characteristic use of smaller samples and the emphasis on the details of how people live their lives Shaw, Qualitative research evokes consideration about confidentiality and the protection of participant identity.
Ethical questions arise due to the special closeness that may develop between qualitative researchers and study participants. Since participant observation is a key methodology, the researcher must explain how he or she plans to address the issue of non-consenting members of the group. Applicants studying individuals who may be subject to legal sanctions if their identities are revealed will need to specify procedures to ensure confidentiality National Institute of Health, Although time, budgetary, and other resource constraints may impact qualitative research, these constraints should not be allowed to undermine it.
Other important considerations must be considered such as the data collection method, as well as, the human resources available to the project and their skills must be taken into account Wilmot, Qualitative research can require an enormous amount of time and be extremely labour intensive. It can also produce results that may not be generalizable for policy-making or decision making, and many funding sources think it may be simply too expensive Trochim, The democratization of social work research is one direction in which the politics of the research have moved centre-stage.
The belated increase in the awareness of research funders that qualitative research makes an important and distinctive contribution to policy, practice, and strategic research poses new challenges to qualitative researchers to address ethical issues in a persuasive and original way when applying for funding Shaw, Qualitative methods are particularly suitable for use with people who are more comfortable responding in an interview format than to a standardized survey questionnaire.
It has been suggested that the gender of respondents should be a consideration in selecting a research strategy because many women may prefer qualitative research techniques to quantitative approaches as they favour opportunities to discuss subjects in context. Additionally, some members of ethnic groups, low income populations, or people who are socially distant from the researcher are more likely to participate in the in-depth interviews characteristic of qualitative research than to complete a structured questionnaire or survey.
To enhance the validity of results in research with diverse populations, research questions must be clearly constructed and must not be subject to different cultural interpretations. Moreover, due to the subjective nature of qualitative research, it is important for the researcher to continually engage in self-examination to be certain that his or her own biases and stereotypes are not influencing the interpretation of the findings.
On the other hand, because qualitative analysis allows researchers to explore in depth all factors that might affect a particular issue, this strategy permits sensitive consideration of the complexities of human diversity McCoy, Then again, when compared with surveys and experiments, qualitative research measurements normally provide more depth of meaning but have less reliability.
Prolonged engagement is used to reduce the impact of reactivity and respondent bias. It is assumed that a long and trusting relationship between a researcher and respondent gives the respondents less opportunity to deceive and is therefore less likely to withhold information and lie. Plus, lengthy interviews or follow-up interviews with the same respondent enables the researcher to detect distortion or the respondent to disclose socially undesirable truths.
However, there are drawbacks to prolonged engagement as lengthy engagement can lead to bias if the researcher over-identifies with the respondent and lose his or her objective, analytic stance, or own sense of identity.
The term for this narrative is going native. Researchers using qualitative observation must fuse two paradoxical perspectives. The first is the emic perspective in which they attempt to adopt the beliefs, attitudes, and other points of view shared by the members of the culture being studied. In conclusion, it is true that many people dislike the thought of researching, yet it is also true that once research is initiated, it can be become addictive as the researchers thirst for knowledge is awakened.
It is a positive attribute that quantitative research engages with hard-to-reach populations and offers insight in extremely complex and often hidden social problems. It gives oppressed populations a voice that can pave the way for social inclusion and social justice. Essay UK - http: There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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