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During World War II, lofting airplanes a good deal of terminology and techniques were inherited from shipbuilding in hangars became a strategic liability. A single bomb could obliterate the master templates of a tactically vital airplane. This became advantageous since numbers could be stored safely and were easily transmitted. Furthermore, they offered, efficiency, accuracy, reproducibility, and security.

Conics are mathematical curves calculated at the various possible intersections of a plane and a cone. However, it was still not uncommon to see draftsmen using wooden splines at their desks a decade later.

Throughout the s, the limitations of such methods had become more acute when designing, manufacturing and assembling various parts of the aircraft. Boeing was a microcosm of the fragmentary innovations in early computer-aided design, which tended to vary according to the specialized needs of each technical industry or department. Faced with systemic incompatibility problems, the company needed to standardize its geometry in order for teams to collaborate efficiently by sharing and coordinating design geometry and software.

The team soon recognized their goal should be a single all-encompassing curve representation, rather than eleven separate ones.

Variable weighting made it possible to draw conics precisely, as well as cylinders and planar parts. A few years earlier, PhD students of S. Coons at the University of Syracuse had expanded the B-Spline model to be both rational and non-uniform. Boeing incorporated the non-uniform B-Spline — whose knots are non-uniformly spaced along the curve — into their new representation.

This property could introduce sharp corners within the spline by placing multiple knots in one location, effectively pinning the curve into a corner at that point. NURBS were quickly adopted by engineers and designers.

Today, organizations can use NURBS to draw fuselages, wings, and almost any design component within the same software, greatly advancing integration and collaboration between design teams, software platforms, or companies.

Without NURBS as a shared geometrical language, it would be impossible to imagine modern manufacturing — be it auto, aerospace, or just about any other product — with teams of specialist subcontractors and suppliers all working cooperatively on shared 3D software models with great precision. As computer aided design matured, the field of computer animation was still in its infancy.

One upstart studio in particular, Pixar, pioneered CGI computer graphics imaging , releasing its first feature-length film, Toy Story, in NURBS is limited to surfaces that are topologically rectangular, such as distorted planes, cylinders, spheres, and toruses the volumes are actually produced by trimmed and curved rectangular surfaces, in which one or more edges are joined to form an enclosed shape.

But organic forms are rarely so simple. Their topology is arbitrary, with numerous holes, creases, and protrusions. Each had to be skillfully trimmed and shaped to create the illusion of blending seamlessly into the next.

The process was expensive, time-consuming and error-prone. The original mesh is progressively subdivided into a smooth form, even if the topology is complex. Subdivision surfaces built upon research, completed 16 years earlier, by Edwin Catmull current president of Disney and Pixar Animation Studios and Jim Clark founder of Silicon Graphics , examining the possibilities of recursive uniform B-Spline surfaces.

Underlying the subdivision surface is a control polygon, resembling a coarsely facetted version of the smooth object. The computer repetitively subdivides the vertices of the polygon by approximating new vertices between them.

The polygon is repeatedly subdivided until the facets are so fine they disappear into a smooth surface see Figure With the increased processing power of modern computers, recursive subdivision appears instantaneous.

The user can simply move the vertices of the underlying control mesh while simultaneously viewing the resultant changes in the smoothed form. Characters could be reliably animated to run, jump, and crouch without literally coming apart at the seams. The edges of fingernails or eyelids could be articulated and detailed without breaking continuity with the surrounding skin.

Pixar now relies on subdivision surfaces in all of its animated films and the technology has become a standard feature within modeling and animation software. Designers and engineers continue to favor NURBS because it offers the precise control over curvature they need for accurately manufacturing real-life products. Animators — who need only be concerned with how a moving shape appears on screen — have gladly relinquished this control in favor of the artistic flexibility and speed offered by subdivision surfaces.

Software targeted at aerospace, automotive, and product design markets offer a set of sophisticated NURBS-based parametric modeling tools that can look and behave somewhat like subdivision surfaces, but are still fundamentally limited by their underlying NURBS topology.

A simplified map of succeeding developments that led to NURBS, subdivision surfaces, and their recent unification under a common representation: The dotted lines represent later relationships derived through mathematical generalization.

The history of the computational spline is — in a strictly mathematical sense — a record of successive mathematical generalizations see Figure In other words, each succeeding geometrical representation has included and expanded on one or more preceding ones, with the goal of greater inclusivity. This important reconciliation appears to have recently occurred in the form of T-splines.

Subsequent developments will ultimately enable the designer — or perhaps anyone for that matter — to intuitively mold objects without being constrained to the technically tedious and inflexible process of blending disparate surfaces, constructed from fixed construction geometry. Once this occurs, expect to see a greater level of integration, articulation, and refinement of freeform designs.

Will this trend lead to haptic computer modeling interfaces, as tactile and accessible as folding cardboard, molding clay, or bending a strip of wood? The latest generalization of the spline brings mankind another step closer to complete mastery of form.

Thank you Alastair for such a enlightening article. As an old engineering patternmaker who has been out of the game and coming late to CAD drawing systems I have really struggled to understand the terminology of curves, lofting, conics, splines, Nurbs and sub D. I thank you for taking the time to research and consolidate the information into one article. Excavations at Mount Sandel, , County Londonderry p.

Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Roll over Euclid p. In Frank Gehry, Architect. Lexikon der gesamten Technik und ihrer Hilfswissenschaften. Computer Aided Geometric Design, Garrett Birkhoff and Applied Mathematics. Notices of the AMS Contributions to the problem of approximation of equidistant data by analytic functions, Parts A and B.

Applied Mathematics 4 , Lofting and Conics in the Design of Aircraft pp. Subdivision Surfaces in Character Animation. Association for Computing Machinery, Computer Aided Design, 10 6 , — ACM Transactions on Graphics 22 , — British Informatics Society Ltd, At the Gastown steam clock with Prof. I am returning home not only with knowledge, but also with motivation and desire to develop and flourish the frequently neglected, but so important and interesting branch of dermatology. Again, thank you for the generous and meaningful gift - knowledge and friendship.

In Greenlandic Inuit tradition, the tupilaq represents an avenging monster fabricated by a practitioner of Shamanism by using various objects such as animal parts bone, skin, hair, etc.

The creature was given life by ritualistic chants, and then placed into the sea to seek and destroy a specific enemy. The tupilak attacked in the form of the creature it represented. It was a magical implement devoid of independent will and, thus, compelled to obey a person possessing insight into the supernatural world. Because tupilaqs were made in secret, and usually from perishable materials, none of the past have been preserved.

Early European visitors to Greenland, fascinated by the native legend, have been eager to see what tupilaqs looked like, so the Inuit began to carve representations of them out various, more durable materials, such as narwhal and walrus tusk, wood and caribou antler.

Today, tupilaqs of many different shapes and sizes have become an important part of Greenlandic Inuit art and are highly prized as collectibles. We both share a deep enthusiasm for hair and the quest for excellence in the management of alopecia and related disorders.

Good medical practice means integrating expert opinion with the best available external evidence from evidence based medicine. The aim of this monograph is to provide physicians with interest in hair with the practical know-how for successful management of hair loss in men.. After almost 17 years, Jack Russell terrier "Lautrec" left passed away from metastasizing mast cell tumour. Seasonality of hair shedding in healthy women complaining of hair loss.

His successor is "Paco", a black pug right. With Professor Yulia Ovcharenko from Ukraine. Some cultural highlights in Bologna from left to right: Allegory dedicated to the illustrious Bolognese physician Marcello Malpighi , the historic Bologna Anatomical Theatre , and the incorrupt body of Saint Catherine of Bologna , Patron saint of painters. However, over the days, I was finding out much more than a good professional, but also a man with a huge heart, a friend, an example for me.

It was an experience that will not only make me a better dermatologist, but also a person of greater value. Thank you for being part of my walk, you are a motivation for me keep on fighting for my goals. Certainly, moments that we had together seeing patients, during our dinners, and at the meeting in Bologna will make part of my best memories.

Hudson Dutra Rezende from Brazil. Hudson Dutra Rezende, M. Few dermatologic problems carry as much emotional overtones as the complaint of hair loss and the best way of alleviating the distress related to hair loss is to treat it effectively.

It was only in that the term dermato-trichologist was proposed for board-certified dermatologists dealing with the scientific study of the hair and scalp, in contrast to the trichologist who is rather associated with laity and cosmetics than with medical professionalism, or — worse —offers opportunities to possible imposters with a primary commercial interest. Trichiatrists differ from trichologists by virtue of being physicians. The quality and stringency of their graduate medical training is identical to that of other physicians.

The credentials of a trichiatrist should include:. Trichologist, Dermatotrichologist, or Trichiatrist? May 1 st through July 31 st Dr. The clinic is run with Swiss efficiency and is beautifully equipped with state-of-the art facilities and excellent supporting staff.

With from left to right Drs. This is a serious mistake: With Professor Ralph M. Mabe Freitas Gouveia, M. The luxury hotel in Moscow city centre was originally commissioned by Joseph Stalin, and was designed by the leading Soviet experts on steel-framed highrise construction. It is the second tallest of the neoclassical Stalin-era "Seven Sisters", and was the tallest hotel in the world at the time of its construction It also houses about 1, original paintings by the most prominent Russian artists of the first half of the 20 th century.

The only way to achieve success is to have a firm foundation of principles to build upon, and the right attitude about how to achieve your goals. The controversial ballet about the Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev who defected the Soviet Union in and died of AIDS-related complications in France in finally had its premiere on the stage of the Bolshoi theatre, despite being pulled from the schedule at the last minute in July, and its director Kirill Serebrennikov placed under house arrest. Restaurant Chef Vladimir Mukhin is in the vanguard of a new wave of young Russian culinary talents.

Traditional Russian produce marries luxe ingredients to create innovative dishes. But this is something of global knowledge. What people might not know, is that he is an amazing host.

Since the first day, I had a very good time. He creates a very good environment in the office, and I felt very comfortable to be by his side, to learn and be a part of all consultations, including interacting with patients and doing some procedures.

All this great experience is situated in Switzerland, which is an amazing and beautiful country, that I had the pleasure and opportunity to visit many parts of on the weekends. I can definitely recommend this Traineeship to anyone that is interested in Trichology. Enjoying scenic Switzerland mountains, lake, and city of Lucerne and Swiss culinary specialities assorted cold cuts, traditional Swiss cheese fondue, and Zug cherry gateau.

At the right with Professors Nagwa M. The hair care industry is equally capable of delivering active compounds directed toward meeting the consumer demand for maintenance of hair cosmesis and quality. Finally, basic scientists interested in the biology of hair growth and pigmentation have exposed the hair follicle as a highly accessible and unique model for the study of age-related effects. At Giza , the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the the Three Pyramids of Giza left and the Great Sphinx of Giza right.

The area served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the 2nd millennium BC. At the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The original collection was established in the late 19 th century under Auguste Mariette. The objects were finally transferred in to the current building at Tahrir Square , which is the first purpose-built museum edifice in the world. The ground floor takes the visitor on a chronological tour through the collections, while the objects on the upper floor are grouped according to tomb or category.

Exhibits here include the treasures of Tutankhamun: Old Cario by night: Al Moez Street left is one of the most amazing streets in Islamic Cairo with more than 25 Islamic monuments of interest and a bustling night life.

Upper Egyptian folklore music performance right. The Upper Egyptians are popularly assumed to be rural simpletons, physically stronger, and less sophisticated than the Lower Egyptians. Selfie with Professors Yuliya Ovcharenko l. Traditionally, the medical focus has been either on hair loss, or on the condition of the scalp in terms of specific dermatologic conditions. In fact, the proximate structural arrangement of the scalp and hair leads to an interdependent relationship between the two.

At co-authored poster of Dr. Maria Fernanda Gavazzoni from Brazil. It is one of the most popular visiting sites In Japan, attracting a large number of visitors annually. In , the pavilion was burned down by a novice monk, Who then attempted suicide.

He survived, and was taken into custody, but finally released because of mental illness. While the pavilion, dating from before , was a national monument that had been spared destruction throughout history, the arson shocked Japan.

The story is narrated by the disturbed acolyte in question, who is afflicted with a stutter, and who recounts his obsession with beauty and a growing urge to destroy it: Japanese folk dance performance at Congress Gala dinner. At hotel bar with Prof.

Vicky Joliffe, from London, UK. Aging Male and Female Hair Kyoto The Intrinsic Connection Kyoto I always knew that being abroad learning from any worldwide recognized dermatologist would definitely make me a better doctor and improve my carrier, but I must confess: My friends know I worked very hard to make this dream come true and now I just feel extremely thankful and rewarded!

Everything was nothing but perfect! To the hard task of summarizing my Trichology Treineeship in Switzerland into one single testimonial, I chose a quotation from a Chinese teacher, also arguably the most influential Chinese philosopher ever: Choose a job you love and you will never work a day in your life. Hudson Dutra Rezende from left to right: Keeping your goal before you. Predetermining your mind to success.

Seizing every opportunity to practice. Visit to the Titlis: Il barbiere di Siviglia Oper von Gioacchino Rossini. To the Greeks, snakes were sacred beings of wisdom, healing, and resurrection. Asclepios bore a rod wreathed with a snake, which became associated with healing.

Later religious movement claimed links to Asclepios. The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. The University of Zurich was founded in , when the existing colleges of theology, the Carolinum founded by Huldrych Zwingli in , law, and medicine were merged with a new faculty of Philosophy. The University allowed women to attend philosophy lectures from , and admitted the first female doctoral student in Opened at the turn of the last century, the Grand Hotel quickly became one of the most popular venues in Nuremberg.

Brought before Allied judges, leading representatives of the Nazi regime, and later doctors, judges, and diplomats were tried here for war crimes. The trials are regarded today as a milestone in the establishment of international law against crimes of war and crimes against humanity. World history was written in the courtroom, where leaders of the Nazi regime had to take responsibility for their crimes before an international Military Tribunal November 29, , through October 1, Today, the courtroom remains functional.

Born in Nuremberg, he established his reputation and influence across Europe at an early age due to his high-quality woodcut prints. From he was patronized by emperor Maximilian I. A self-portrait painted early in , just before his 29 th birthday, has become fixed in the popular imagination, and is considered the most personal, and iconic of his self-portraits, styling himself with resemblance to early representations of a long-haired and bearded Christ Ref.

The Error of the Long-Haired Jesus? Lawrence Cathedral is a medieval church of the former free Imperial city of Nuremberg. It is one of the most prominent of the churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria. The building and furnishing of the church was cared of by the city council and the wealthy citizens of Nuremberg, which is probably the reason why the art treasures of the church were spared during the iconoclasm in the Reformation period.

The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored. Thank you for the opportunity to share with me your knowledge and your days, also introduce me to your family Mother and pet pug Paco this month. We had excellent days and interesting cases. I will take this learning into my heart and know that I can help many patients in Brazil.

With Marija Berisha, view on the three main churches of the old town: Welcome address of Dr. Fernanda and her enthusiasm are to be commended for the excellent organization of a successful and unforgettable 1-day course on alopecia.

Thanks to her passion and that of her invited speakers, including my former Dermato-Trichology trainee August 2 through 31, Dr. To the leader in the Brazilianprescription drug market, health and life quality are indispensable for the individual to realize a fulfilled life by virtue of his own strength. Therefore,Biolab commits itself to the research and development, and production and commercialization of respective pharmaceutics, also for hair growth and quality.

At the same time, the municipality has been classified as the richest city of Brazil, reflecting in its demographics,economy, education, and boasting numerable notable people in the fields of music, show business, sports, and politics.

Dinner at trendy restaurant with residents and faculty of the Department of Dermatology of the Universidade Federal Fluminense. The Acropolis of Athens located on an extremely rocky outcrop above the city contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historical significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.

Sightseeing opportunity of the cultural heritage of the Greek people was kindly provided by the congress organization. Marble votive relief depicting the various phases in the curing of a patient BC. Found in the sanctuary of Amphiaraos at Oropos. The shape of a temple, and the panel on a tall base in the background denote the sanctity of the area in which the healing events are taking place.

Spending time with someone eager about learning is definitely heavenly. Thank you for the countless laughs and for your great sense of humor. My appointments with the patients will never be the same! Of course, nothing would be possible without patients, so here goes my huge thankfulness to them.

My best wishes to your team, Dr. Antonia Fellas, Marija, Danijela, and Biella, who treated me as if I were a member of this select group. I hope meeting you soon again.

Pedro Colli performing intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in patient with alopecia areata. When the Fair was over, the new urban district was dubbed Park of Nations, and is now one of the largest urban re-development projects in Europe. With international colleagues in the quest for excellence in clinical Trichology and invited speakers from left to right: Das Buch von San Michele. Satyr mit Weinpokal , Carlo die Cesare del Palagio He is a good doctor and teacher, who not only knows and understands trichology and dermatology very well, but is also willing to share his work, knowledge, passion and humor.

It is a truly inspirational experience which will guide my pursuit of the subspecialty. And of course, to the appreciation of arts, too! In mutual appreciation of art: A leading figure of the Impressionist movement and perhaps the most celebrated landscape painter of his age, Monet dedicated his life to capturing the subtleties of the natural world.

Legend has it that the ancient Chinese were looking into wrinkles for patterns that resembled Chinese characters. In , when the Wilden Mann was first mentioned in records, it was not the refined place it represents today. In fact, it was a bar without a tavern licence. Later it became an inn. It was not until the 19 th century with the rise of tourism in Switzerland that the Wilden Mann was transformed into a first-class address.

Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea. The university has been consistently ranked as one of the premier universities in South Korea and regarded in both national and international university rankings. The new hospital opened April Evolutionary origins and implications of changes in the life cycle complexity.

Basal body positioning in zebrafish photoreceptors and variation in swordtail photoreceptor mosaics G. Lekven May 14 Kevin D. Spiroplasma and Wolbachia " M. Theory and Empiricism" A. Insights in the Establishment to Maintenance Transition" J. Holzenburg May 12 Simone M. Lepage Biology MS non-thesis U. Strain PCC " M. Behavioral and Experimental Evidence from Tadarida brasiliensis. Riley Aug 10 Chace A. Strain PCC J. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization R.

Young May 08 Lan Wang Microbiology MS Directed Evolution of the cyanide dihydratase of bacillus pumilus C1 and conversion of the substrate specificity of the bacillus sp. Aramayo Dec 07 G. Qin May 07 Archie W. Rowe May 07 Jodi L. Bollinger Biology MS non-thesis J. Golden May 07 Roger R.

Golden May 07 Edan R. Manson May 07 Gus Greta J. Earnest May 07 Michael W. Bell-Pedersen May 07 Brian J. Manson Dec 06 Gregory L.

Siegele Dec 06 Ketan S. Pepper Dec 06 Kristin A. McKnight Dec 06 Tyler T. Golden Aug 06 Oranit Gilad: Brasilliana Rang and A. Cervina Dall and Simpson in the Lower Laguna Strain PCC S. Franesoic Acid O-Methyltransferase of Passalus cornutus: Golden Dec 92 Donald Hodges Jr. Golden Dec 91 Janice L. Toggle Sliding Bar Area. The unexpected virtue of pentraxins: Understanding circadian output networks in Neurospora crassa.

The effects of genetic and environmental factors on the reproductive behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster. Sexual development and meiotic silencing in Neurospora crassa. Analysis of the fungal virulence of Cryptococcus and exploration of novel antifungals against cryptococcosis. Mechanisms and genomic patterns of reproductive isolation of Xiphophorus fishes.

Patterns in teleost photoreceptor organization: Basal body positioning in zebrafish photoreceptors and variation in swordtail photoreceptor mosaics. Mechanisms of individual variation in reproductive in behavior in female X. Spiroplasma and Wolbachia ". Insights in the Establishment to Maintenance Transition". Insights into Vertebrate Mesoderm Development and Patterning".

The Mystery of the Chaetognata: Bacteria in ballast water: Implications for Intraflagellar Transport and Human Disease. Effect of variations in freshwater inflows on photoplankton productivity and community composition. Directed Evolution of the cyanide dihydratase of bacillus pumilus C1 and conversion of the substrate specificity of the bacillus sp. Melatonin modulates intercellular communication among immortalized rat suprachiasmatic nucleus cells. A Dicer-Like protein essential for normal sexual development and meiotic silencing in the filamnentous fungus Neurospora Crassa.

Genetic and Biochemical Analyses of Hypothetical Protein 1: Purple Acid Phosphate Behavioral Ecology and Conservation of Large Mammals: An unknown regulator affects cell division and the timing of entry into stationary phase in Escherichia coli. Role for Multiple Receptor Subtypes. A Systematic Study of Compsoneura A. Regulation of Tryptothan Decarboxylase from Camptotheca acuminata in Transgenic Nicotiana tabucum and Arabidopsis thaliana.

A Characterization of the Conjusome: Identification and Characterization of the Anabaena sp. Pollination in the Genus Baccharis Asteraceae: Microsatellites and Conservation Genetics: Molecular Characterization of the Camptotheca acuminata Decaisne 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl Coenzyme: Isolation and Characterization of Developmental Genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Roles of Juvenile Hormone, Ecdysteroid and the Brain. Attractant Binding and Signaling in the E.

Age associated differences in response to lipopolysaccharide: Interspecific Relationships within the Genus Amaranthus Amaranthaceae. Maturation of F Propilin: Important Components in the Rat Circadian System. The Importance of Animal Foods. Dytiscidae in Response to Fish Predation. The Biology and Ecology of Ochrimnus mimulus Stal, Calanoioda of the World. Studies of the Cell Cycle Engine.

Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages.

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Our Graduate Program in Biology offers a diverse range of integrative training opportunities for students seeking a Ph.D. degree in cutting-edge biological research. The Minghui Yu Memorial Conference, organized by doctoral students at Statistics Department of Columbia University, will take place on Saturday, April 28th at the Faculty House in the Presidential Ballroom. Minghui Yu was a doctoral student at the statistics.

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SLS Undergraduates Michelle Akamine and Victoria Lee Receive Research Awards for Projects on Child Second Language Acquisition Drs. Kyle, LaFlair, and Ziegler Awarded TOEFL COE Grant PhD Student Awarded NSF Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant Develop Your Expertise as a Language Teacher Learn Cutting Edge Research Methods Learn a New Language While You Earn Your Degree SLS . The University of Iowa shooting took place in Iowa City, Iowa, United States on November 1, The gunman was Gang Lu, a year-old former graduate student at the University. He killed four members of the university's faculty and a student; he left another student seriously injured, before committing suicide.